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  • Heidi the New Family Member

    As of January 31st, 2018 we have a new edition to the family. Heidi ironically she is a cat. Amanda and I adopted her on December 29th, 2017 after filling out the paperwork on the 27th of December. My father saw the add in his e-mail and told us about her. Amanda thought we should look at her, seeing it could be fate. After finding out her name and story behind her we could not say no.

    She is a sweetheart. We adopted her from the Westfield Animal Shelter. She was hit by a car on Franklin Street and had a fractured pelvis, back in November. On November 2nd she was taken to the vet and treated over night then was sent to another vet to have surgery on November 4th.  Her family at the time found her in the shelter but did not want to pay the vet bills in order to get her back. Heidi then went up for adoption, and she found her way into our hearts. I felt bad for Heidi because she is not a young cat. I knew she would not be the first choice for people at the shelter. People usually like to go for the young cats or kittens. I didn’t want Heidi to spend her remaining years in the shelter.

    We don’t know really how old she is. The owners told the shelter she was 14 but the vet thinks she is 9. You wouldn’t know it by watching her that she was ever in such pain. The way she runs around here and plays she acts like 9 or younger. Amanda refers to Heidi as her “Fur Baby.” In fact, I told Amanda the other day that Heidi does something that Heidi the dog did. Both Heidi’s like to take their wet food out of their bowls and eat it off the floor. Heidi is such a wonderful cat, she settled in with us within hours of arriving. We believe she is telling us that she loves and trusts us by always having to place a paw or two on us at all times.



  • A Google Maps Street View car was involved in a minor accident this weekend in Serbia.

    A Google Maps Street View car was involved in a minor accident this weekend in Serbia.

    A Google Maps Street View car was involved in a minor accident this weekend in Serbia.

    The Opel Astra Google Street View car was being driven on the streets of Pozega in the Zlatibor District of Serbia and for reasons unknown at this moment the driver lost control of the hatchback and hit a pole before coming to a full stop in the nearby bush.

    There weren’t any other vehicles involved in the crash and nobody was injured while the vehicle will have to undergo some minor repairs as the front bumper and front right fender will have to be replaced. In addition, the hood also needs a quick fix and the front right fog light will have to be replaced as well.

    As most of you know, Google has developed an electric self-driving prototype as part of their objective to evolve autonomous vehicle technology which like it or not is coming as a report by Morgan Stanley predicts all cars will be autonomous by 2046.

    Google Maps Street View car crashes in Serbia

  • Crash knocked out power in Ludlow, driver arrested for OUI

    Published:  Updated: 

    LUDLOW, Mass. (WWLP) – Some Ludlow residents are without power Monday morning, after a car crashed into a utility pole after midnight. The driver of that car is now facing charges including operating under the influence of alcohol.

    Ludlow Police Sgt. Daniel Valadas told 22News that Marcus Miller, 19, of Ludlow, was taken into custody following the crash, which took place at around 12:45 A.M. near 77 Poole Street.

    Marcus Miller, 19, of Ludlow is charged with OUI-liquor and reckless operation of a motor vehicle. Image Courtesy: Ludlow Police Department


    Continue reading  Post ID 90145

  • ‘I felt him get shot in the back’: Victims identified in Las Vegas shooting

    (Issues Playing Video Click Here)

    A Tennessee man died while shielding his wife from bullets during the mass shooting in Las Vegas.USA TODAY

    Continue reading  Post ID 90145

  • Las Vegas Shooting 2017: What We Know So Far About The Victims

    Image: Las Vegas shooting victims
    The 58 victims of the Las Vegas shooting NBC News

    One was an emergency room nurse who’d gone to Las Vegas for a wedding anniversary — and died protecting his wife from gunfire. Another was a military veteran who served in Afghanistan.

    A police records technician from California, also went to the Route 91 Harvest country music festival on Sunday night, and she, too, became part of the soaring death toll in the deadliest mass shooting in modern U.S. history.

    The Clark County coroner’s office released a full list of the victims on Thursday night. Here’s what we know about them:

    Hannah Ahlers

    Image: Hannah Ahlers

    Hannah Ahlers Facebook

    Ahlers, 34, got married at 17 and was the mother of three children, according to The Washington Post. She lived in Beaumont, California, and was a fan of four-wheeling and watching her daughter play volleyball, The Post reported.

    Ahlers was struck in the head with a bullet at the music festival, Lance Miller, her brother, told The Post.

    Heather Alvarado

    Image: Heather Warino Alvarado

    Heather Warino Alvarado Facebook via AP

    Alvarado, 35, was the wife of Cedar City, Utah, firefighter Albert Alvarado.

    “Our thoughts and prayers go out to the entire Alvarado/Warino family,” the fire department said. An account has been opened at the State Bank of Southern Utah in Heather Alvarado’s name for all those who wish to contribute, the department added.

    Dorene Anderson

    Image: Dorene Anderson

    Dorene Anderson

    Anderson, 49, of Anchorage, Alaska, was a self-described stay-at-home mother and wife.

    Her husband’s employer, Alaska Housing Finance Corp., shared a statement from the Anderson family on its Facebook page.

    “She (Dorene) was the most amazing wife, mother and person this world ever had. We are so grateful and lucky for the time that we did have with her. We are greatly appreciative and want to thank everyone for the thoughts and prayers you have been sending us,” the statement said.

    Carrie Barnette

    Carrie Barnette via Facebook

    Barnette, 30, was a longtime Disneyland worker who’d gone to Las Vegas to celebrate a friend’s birthday, the Los Angeles Times reported.

    “She was always generous and helping everybody in every way,” her mother, Mavis Barnette, told the paper. “She loved her nieces and nephews and her sister and brother.”


    A senseless, horrific, act, and a terrible loss for so many. We mourn a wonderful member of the Disney family: Carrie Barnette. Tragic.



    Disney Chief Executive Robert Iger wrote on Twitter on Monday night: “A senseless, horrific, act, and a terrible loss for so many. We mourn a wonderful member of the Disney family: Carrie Barnette. Tragic.”

    Jack Beaton

    Beaton, 54, the father of two children, was killed while shielding his wife from the gunfire, his son Jake Beaton wrote on social media.

    Jack Beaton via Facebook

    Beaton and his wife were in Las Vegas celebrating their 23rd wedding anniversary.

    “He put Laurie on the ground and covered her with his body and he got shot I don’t know how many times,” Beaton’s father-in-law Jerry Cook told The Telegraph. “Laurie was saying he was bleeding through the mouth, bleeding profusely, she knew he was dying. He told her he loved her. Laurie could tell he was slipping. She told him she loved him and she would see him in heaven.”

    Before he died, the elder Beaton posted a photo of himself with a group of smiling, jovial friends at the concert.

    Steven Berger

    Steven Berger EFS Advisors via AP

    Berger, 44, a financial adviser and basketball player from Shorewood, Minnesota, attended the concert with his roommate and other friends.

    His mother, Mary, told The Associated Press that his roommate saw Berger, the father of three children, get shot and fall to the ground but couldn’t get to him because the crowds were being herded out of the venue.

    Candice Bowers

    Candice Bowers via GoFundMe

    Bowers, 40, was killed Sunday doing what she loved — dancing to country music — her family said in a statement on the crowdfunding website GoFundMe.

    Bowers, the mother of three chidren, will be greatly missed by all who knew and loved her, her family added in a statement.

    Related: Stories of Heroism Emerge From Las Vegas Massacre

    Denise Burditus

    Image: Denise Burditus

    Denise Burditus Facebook via AP

    Burditus, 50, of Martinsburg, West Virginia, was the mother of two children and a grandmother of four.

    “There wasn’t many times where she didn’t have a smile on her face,” her husband of 32 years, Tony Burditus, told The Washington Post. “She never met a stranger.”

    Sandy Casey

    Casey, 34, of Manhattan Beach, California, was a special education teacher who’d worked for the city’s unified school district for nine years, NBC Los Angeles reported.

    Image: Sandy Casey

    Sandy Casey Facebook / via AP

    A country music lover, she’d gone to the festival with her fiancé and some friends, and they’d been near the stage when she was shot in her lower back, according to The Washington Post.

    Her boyfriend tried carrying her to safety — dodging gunfire along the way — but eventually she stopped breathing, The Post reported.

    “This is unbelievably sad and tragic,” district Superintendent Mike Matthews said, according NBC Los Angeles. “We lost a spectacular teacher who devoted her life to helping some of our most needy students.”

    Andrea Castilla


    Andrea Castilla Facebook via AP

    Castilla, 28, a makeup artist from Huntington Beach, California, was celebrating her 28th birthday in Las Vegas — where her boyfriend was planning to propose marriage.

    Castilla was holding hands with her sister when she was shot in the head, according to a GoFundMe page created by her aunt, Marina Parker.

    “My sister was really happy. She was living her life and had so many dreams and aspirations,” Adam Castilla, her brother, told The Washington Post. “She didn’t have one bad bone in her body. Every time I saw her, she managed to make everything good.”

    Denise Cohen

    Denise Cohen Courtesy of Jeff Rees via AP

    Cohen, 57, lived in Oxnard, California, with her boyfriend, Derrick “Bo” Taylor, who was also killed.

    Cohen’s son told NBC Bay Area that his mother radiated a light that touched everyone she knew.

    Austin Davis

    Austin Davis Facebook via AP

    Davis, 29, was a pipe fitter. The Washington Post reported that the last text Davis sent his mother read, “I kinda want to come home, I love home.”

    Thomas Day Jr.

    Day, 54, was a country music fan, the father of four adult children and a grandfather of two. He moved to Las Vegas three years ago after having raised a family in Corona, California.

    IMAGE: Thomas Day Jr.

    Thomas Day Jr. Family photo via AP

    Day was described as a “great family man” and a “fun-loving boy” by his father, Thomas Day Sr.

    The elder Day said he learned of his son’s death when he got a frantic phone call from his grandchildren.

    “They were standing right there, and they said he and another young man there both took a bullet in the head,” he told The Associated Press. “Everybody started running for cover, and the guy kept shooting.”

    Christiana Duarte

    Image: Christiana Duarte

    Christiana Duarte Courtesy of Los Angeles Kings

    Duarte, 22, a recent graduate of the University of Arizona, was part of the Sigma Kappa sorority, university President Robert C. Robbins said in a statement.

    “I know I speak for the UA community in expressing our deepest condolences for Christiana’s family and in asking for their privacy to be respected,” Robbins added.

    Stacee Etcheber

    Etcheber, 50, had attended the concert Sunday with her husband, Vincent, a San Francisco police officer, NBC Bay Area reported.

    Stacee Etcheber Facebook via AP

    As bullets rained down on the crowds from the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay Casino and Hotel, Vincent told her to run as he stayed behind to help the wounded, according to the San Francisco Police Officers Association.

    But Vincent later couldn’t find his wife among the panicked crowd, the association said.

    San Francisco Police Chief William Scott said Etcheber “was taken in a senseless act of violence” while her husband “heroically rushed to aid shooting victims.”

    Brian Fraser

    Brian Fraser Facebook via AP

    Nick Arellano left his family at the festival Sunday morning because he had to race back for his first day at the University of California.

    His mother, his father and his new wife were still at the festival when the first shots were fired, Arellano, 25, an Air Force engineer, told NBC Los Angeles.

    Later that evening, he got a call saying his father, Fraser, 39, had died in the gunfire.

    Arellano said that his father was too good for this world and that said he had even ordained himself to perform Arellano’s wedding in July.

    “Love and respect is the result of the best a man has to offer,” said Arellano, who said he hoped to honor his father by caring for his three siblings and his widowed mother.

    Keri Galvan

    Keri Lynn Galvan Facebook via AP

    Galvan, 31, died in her husband’s arms after having been shot in the head, according to NBC Los Angeles.

    “I didn’t notice right away,” said her husband, Justin Galvan, a former Marine. “I started CPR right away, and I did everything I could.”

    Galvan, the mother of three young children, was “an amazing supermom — that’s what you could best describe her as,” her sister Lindsey Poole said.

    Dana Gardner

    Image: Dana Garnder

    Dana Gardner County of San Bernardino

    Gardner, 52, of San Bernardino, California, was killed in Sunday’s attack, NBC Los Angeles reported.

    She worked for San Bernardino County as a deputy recorder for more than 25 years, a county official confirmed.

    Angie Gomez

    Image: Mandalay Bay shooting Angie Gomez in social media photo

    Angie Gomez Social Media via Reuters

    Gomez, 20, graduated from high school two years ago, had just gotten a job as a certified nursing assistant and was attending the festival to celebrate, The Washington Post reported.

    Citing a family friend, the paper reported that she was shot three times — once in the shoulder and twice in the arm. She died before her longtime boyfriend could get her to a hospital.

    School officials in Riverside, California, described her on Monday as a determined but convivial student who loved theater and choir.

    “We are shaken and saddened by this news,” the district said in a statement. “Angie was a loyal friend who loved her family and will be forever missed by all who knew her.”

    Rocio Guillen

    Image: Las Vegas Shooting victim

    Rocio Guillen Facebook / via AP

    Guillen, 40, had recently given birth to her fourth child and was engaged to be married when she died, NBC Los Angeles reported.

    Her son Marcus Guillen said he immediately texted his mother’s fiancé, Jaksha, who replied to say his mother had been shot in the leg.

    It wasn’t until the next morning that Marcus found out that his mother had died. He said that he felt angry that his mother, who had overcome paralysis while pregnant with his younger brother, couldn’t have survived the shooting.

    “She was a fighter, a great mother,” he told The Associated Press.

    Charleston Hartfield

    Hartfield, 34, was a sergeant first class with the Nevada Army National Guard and a soldier in the 100th Quartermaster Company, headquartered in Las Vegas.

    Sgt. 1st Class Charleston Hartfield U.S. Army National Guard

    “Sgt. 1st Class Hartfield epitomizes everything good about America,” said Brig. Gen. Zachary Doser, commander of the Nevada Army National Guard.

    The Las Vegas Review–Journal reported that Hartfield was a Las Vegas police officer who was off duty at the time of the shooting.

    He was also the author of “Memoirs of a Public Servant,” published earlier this year.

    The book, which details Hartfield’s career as a police officer in Las Vegas, says he worked in law enforcement for 11 years and on active military duty for 16 years.

    It also says Hartfield was a husband and father.

     Las Vegas Police Officer Remembered at Vigil 0:50

    Chris Hazencomb

    Christopher Hazencomb

    Hazencomb, 44, of Camarillo, California, was a sports junkie who graduated from Thousand Oaks High School, according to the Ventura County Star.

    Jennifer Irvine

    Jennifer Topaz Irvine Courtesy of Kyle Kraska via AP

    Irvine, 42, a lawyer, was a snowboarder and had a black belt in taekwondo, according to The Washington Post.

    She was with a group of friends when she was shot in the head, her friend Kyle Kraska, sports director of KFMB-TV of San Diego, told The Post.

    Kraska described Irvine as a “ball of energy” who often organized weekend trips and social get-togethers.

    Kraska told The Post that he hoped his friend died instantaneously from the bullet wound.

    “Her life ended singing and dancing and smiling,” he said.

    Nicol Kimura

    Kimura, 36, of Placentia, California, was attending the festival with a close-knit group of friends, who called themselves a “framily.”

    Image: Nicol Kimura

    Nicol Kimura GoFundMe

    Ryan Miller, who was with Kimura and started a GoFundMe page for her family, confirmed her death to NBC News.

    “Nicol’s heart was bigger than most human beings, her spirit was beautiful, her laugh was infectious, and she just had a way of making every time we gathered an awesome one,” Miller wrote on the GoFundMe page.

    Miller wrote on Facebook that his children loved Kimura because she was the “fun crazy aunt everyone wants.”

    “Nicol is never to be replaced. There will always be an empty seat at our framily dinners,” he wrote.

    Jessica Klymchuk

    Image: Las Vegas shooting victim Jessica Klymchuk

    Jessica Klymchuk. Facebook

    Klymchuk, 34, of Alberta, was the mother of four children and worked as a librarian, a bus driver and an educational assistant at a Roman Catholic elementary school, St. Stephen’s.

    Klymchuk was in Las Vegas with her fiancé at the time of the shooting, according to The Globe and Mail. Her children remained at home.

    “She was a very good mother,” Margaret Klymchuk, her grandmother, told The Globe and Mail. “She raised four beautiful children.”

    Carly Kreibaum

    Image: Carly Kreibaum

    Carly Kreibaum via Facebook

    Kreibaum, 33, of Sutherland, Iowa, was a mother of two who went missing in the aftermath of the shooting.

    “At this time my family and I would just like some privacy as we take the necessary time to grieve,” family member Sarah Rohwer told The Washington Post.

    Rhonda LeRocque

    Rhonda LeRocque Courtesy of family

    LeRocque, 42, of Tewksbury, Massachusetts, was also among the dead, NBC Boston reported.

    “We’ve lost a gem,” her mother, Priscilla Champagne, told the station Monday.

    Jennifer Zeleneski, LeRocque’s half-sister, said: “She didn’t deserve this. Her family doesn’t deserve this. She was an amazing person, a great mom, great wife. She always had something nice to say when you needed it.”

    Victor Link

    Victor Link Courtesy of family

    Link, 55, was a loan processor from San Clemente, California.

    He was a music lover and the father of a 23-year-old son, a nephew, Vincent Link, told The Bakersfield California. He attended the music festival with his fiancée, Lynn Gonzales.

    “It doesn’t feel real,” Vincent Link said. “It’s hard to grasp that he’s gone.”

    Jordan McIldoon

    Jordan McIldoon via Facebook

    McIldoon, 23, of British Columbia, was attending the festival with his girlfriend. He was a mechanic apprentice about to start trade school, and he was the only child of Al and Angela McIldoon, according to CBC News.

    “We only had one child,” they told the site. “We just don’t know what to do.”

    McIldoon died in the arms of Las Vegas bartender Heather Gooze, according to CBC News. She told the site that she stayed with him for more than five hours and spoke with his mother and girlfriend.

    “I wouldn’t want anybody to leave,” Gooze told CBC News. “You know, I couldn’t just leave him by himself.”

    Kelsey Meadows

    Kelsey Meadows via Fresno State

    Meadows, 28, was a graduate of Fresno State University in California who became “a gifted teacher who demonstrated a skill and passion for her chosen profession,” history Professor Lori Clune said in a statement.

    Calla Medig

    Calla Medig Facebook / via AP

    Medig, 28, was at the concert with her roommate when she was killed.

    Medig’s mother, Louise Hayes, told Global News that she and her husband left for Las Vegas on Monday night to identify her daughter’s body.

    Sonny Melton

    Sonny, 29, and his wife, Heather, were celebrating their wedding anniversary at the music festival when gunfire rang out, NBC affiliate WSMV of Nashville, Tennessee, reported.

    Sonny Melton with his wife Heather Melton. Courtesy Heather Melton

    Sonny, an emergency room nurse, “saved my life,” Heather Melton said. “He grabbed me and started running when I felt him get shot in the back.”

    “I want everyone to know what a kindhearted, loving man he was, but at this point, I can barely breathe,” Heather said.

    Pati Mestas

    Image: Pati Mestas


    Mestas, 67, who lived in Menifee, California, was a country music fanatic, and Jason Aldean was one of her favorite singers, the Press-Enterprise newspaper of Riverside, California, reported.

    Tom Smith of San Antonio, Texas, Mestas’ cousin, described her to the Press-Enterprise as “very likeable, very outgoing. Focused on family and very sensitive to other people’s concerns or problems or issues. She was genuinely a very nice person to have a conversation with and to share both fortunate and unfortunate events.”

    Nancy Barton, a friend, said on a GoFundMe page established for the family: “Pati was one great lady, loved her family and country music. She was at the concert in Las Vegas enjoying the music that she waited so long to go to … happy and excited.”

    Austin Meyer

    Austin Meyer via Facebook

    Meyer, 24, of Marina, California, was a Seaside High School graduate and was attending Truckee Meadows Community College in Reno, Nevada.

    “He had dreams of opening his own auto repair shop after graduation. He was excited to get married and start a family,” Veronica Meyer, his sister, told NBC affiliate KSBW of Salinas, California.

    Adrian Murfitt

    Image: Adrian Murfitt

    Adrian Murfitt Courtesy of Avonna Murfit / via AP

    Murfitt, 35, a commercial fisherman, had traveled to Nevada from his home in Anchorage, Alaska, after a successful season on the water, The Associated Press reported.

    Murfitt “was happy to pay some things off and had made some really good money,” Shannon Gothard, his sister, told the AP. He “decided to go out and celebrate and go to the concert and treat himself to something nice and fun.”

    Gothard told the AP that her family spoke with a friend who was with her brother when he died.

    Rachael Parker

    Image: Las Vegas Victim

    Rachael Parker Manhattan Beach Police Department via AP

    Parker was a records technician with a decade-long career at the Manhattan Beach Police Department in Los Angeles. She’d gone to Las Vegas with a colleague, a department spokeswoman said.

    The colleague — an officer with the department who wasn’t identified — was shot but survived, said the spokeswoman, Kristie Colombo.

    Parker, 33, “will be greatly missed,” Colombo said.

    Jenny Parks

    Jennifer Parks via Facebook

    Parks, 36, of Lancaster, California, was a kindergarten teacher and the mother of two children, according to The New York Times.

    She leaves behind her husband, Bobby, who was injured in Sunday’s mass shooting, a friend, Jessica Maddin, told The Associated Press.

    Parks and her husband were high school sweethearts, and she had become a teacher for the Lancaster School District in California, the news agency reported.

    “It breaks my heart,” Maddin said. “People go to concerts to have a good time, connect with others and escape the tragedies of this world.”

    Carolyn Lee Parsons

    Image: Carrie Parsons

    Carrie Parsons via Facebook

    Parsons, 31, of Seattle, was a staffing manager at the recruiting company Ajilon in Seattle, according to her LinkedIn page. Mary Beth Waddill, a spokeswoman for LinkedIn, told The Associated Press that the company was respecting the family’s privacy but may release a statement on Parsons’ death.

    Parsons posted “Night made!” early Saturday on Facebook after seeing the singer Eric Church at the concert.

    A friend, Carolyn Farmer, wrote in a post sharing Parson’s comments: “I feel peace knowing she was living life until her last moments.”

    Lisa Patterson

    Image: Lisa Patterson

    Lisa Patterson (R), pictured with her husband Bob

    Patterson, 46, the mother of three children, attended the festival with three friends, her husband, Bob, told NBC Los Angeles. She was the only one not to walk out alive.

    Her friends, who were unhurt, saw her get shot, Bob said.

    He said that he texted his wife on Sunday evening but that she didn’t respond. He waited all night before driving to Las Vegas at 6 a.m. (9 a.m. ET) the next day but only found out that she was dead by the end of Monday.

    In addition to her husband, Patterson leaves behind two daughters and a son.

    John Phippen

    Image: John Phippen

    John Phippen via Facebook

    Phippen, 56, was a New York native who moved to Santa Clarita, California, where he ran a home remodeling company called JP Specialties.

    He attended the concert with his son Travis, according to the Los Angeles Times.

    “He was my best friend,” Travis told the Times. “He never did anything wrong to anybody. He was always kind and gentle. He was the biggest teddy bear I knew.”

    Travis, who was shot in the arm, drove his father to Sunrise Hospital & Medical Center, where he died.

    Melissa Ramirez

    Image: Mandalay Bay shooting Melissa Ramirez in social media photo

    Melissa Ramirez Social media via Reuters

    Ramirez, 26, of Littlerock, California, was a member service specialist for AAA. She enjoyed traveling and football.

    Ramirez, who graduated from California State University at Bakersfield with a degree in business, was “the best cook in the family,” her cousin, Yesenia Mancilla, told The Washington Post.

    Jordyn Rivera

    Image: Jordyn Rivera

    Jordyn Rivera Social Media / via Reuters

    Rivera, 21, was a fourth-year student at California State University-San Bernardino and a member the national health education honor society Eta Sigma Gamma, according to the Las Vegas Review-Journal.

    CSUSB shared a link on Facebook to a GoFundMe page set up for Rivera’s funeral costs. School President Tomás D. Morales said in a statement: “This is a devastating loss for the entire CSUSB family. In this time of grief, our thoughts and prayers are with Jordyn’s family, friends and all who knew her.”

    Quinton Robbins

    Quinton Robbins Facebook via AP

    Robbins, 20, took his girlfriend on a date to the music festival, and when he began clutching his chest, she thought that Robbins — a diabetic — had low blood sugar levels, The Washington Post reported.

    She didn’t realize he’d been struck in the chest, Gaynor Wells, Robbins’ grandmother, told the paper.

    Robbins was the oldest of three children and a student at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

    He was “just a jewel,” Robbins said, according to The Post.

    Cameron Robinson

    Cameron Robinson Facebook via AP

    Robinson, 27, of St. George, Utah, was attending the festival with his boyfriend, Robert Eardley. Robinson was shot in the neck.

    Trina Gray, who raised Robinson from the time he was a small child, told The Washington Post that his death felt like a “cosmic joke.”

    In recent weeks, Gray’s home was flooded by Hurricane Harvey. Her mother also recently died. She said she is now trying to explain the series of tragedies to Robinson’s 4-year-old nephew.

    Tara Roe

    IMAGE: Tara Roe

    Tara Roe GoFundMe

    Roe, 34, was the mother of two young children, according to CBC News.

    Val Rodgers, her aunt, called her niece a “beautiful soul” and a “wonderful mother.” Roe worked as an educational assistant for the Foothills School Division in Alberta. She spent more than a decade as a model with Sophia Models International, the agency said in a statement posted on Facebook.

    “We are saddened, shocked and pray for everyone affected by this tragedy,” the agency said. “She was always a friendly face and had a very caring spirit.”

    Lisa Romero-Muniz

    Image: Lisa Romero Muniz

    Lisa Romero Muniz Social Media / via Reuters

    Romero Muniz had worked for the Gallup-McKinley County, New Mexico, school district since 2003 and was most recently a discipline secretary at Miyamura High School in Gallup.

    Superintendent Mike Hyatt called her “an incredible, loving and sincere friend, mentor and advocate for our students.”

    “She was outgoing, kind and considerate,” he said. “We will miss all these attributes that she brought and shared.”

    Christopher Roybal

    Debby Allen went to the music festival with her son, Christopher Roybal, 28, a veteran who served in Afghanistan. But they got there at different times. When Allen texted Roybal asking for his location, she never heard back.

    Image: Las Vegas Shooting Victim Christopher Roybal

    Christopher Roybal Courtesy of Family

    And when the gunfire began, they were on opposite sides of the stage, Allen said.

    “I was trying to run towards wherever I thought he might be,” she said. “This man wouldn’t let me — he kept pulling me away saying, ‘You can’t run towards the gunfire.'”

    Allen later found a firefighter who’d been walking behind her son when he was hit.

    “He told me my son was shot in the chest — that he said, ‘I was hit, I’m hit,'” Allen said. “They all bent down when the gunfire began, and my son just fell back.”

    Brett Schwanbeck

    Brett Schwanbeck Courtesy of family

    Schwanbeck, 61, the father of two children and grandfather of five, was killed running for cover with his fiancée Anna Orozco.

    Orozco told the Washington Postthat she and Schwanbeck, lifelong friends from Arizona, were scheduled to marry in January.

    Schwanbeck was a retired big-rig truck driver who was happy outdoors riding ATVs or fishing, Orozco told The Post.

    “He was a fun-loving, hard-living man,” she told the paper. “He enjoyed life, and he’d help out anyone who needed help. … He was such a big, important part of my life.”

    Bailey Schweitzer

    Image: Bailey Schweitzer

    Bailey Schweitzer Facebook / via AP

    Schweitzer, 20, of Bakersfield, California, was a former high school cheerleader and worked as a receptionist at Infinity Communications, according to The Bakersfield Californian.

    Colleagues said Schweitzer was enjoying Las Vegas so much that she planned to return for her 21st birthday in April.

    Co-workers left a single candle at the avid country music fan’s desk after learning of her death, the paper reported.

    Laura Shipp

    Laura Shipp Facebook via AP

    Shipp, 50, of Las Vegas was at the concert with her son, Corey Shipp, 23, her boyfriend and some friends, said Steve Shipp, her brother.

    Shipp moved to Las Vegas five years ago from Thousand Oaks, California, and she remained a rabid fan of the Los Angeles Dodgers, her brother told the Ventura County Star. He said he remembered his sister as a happy woman with “lots and lots of friends.” But it was her son, a U.S. Marine, to whom she was completely devoted, he said.

    “She was his world, and he was hers.”

    Erick Silva

    Erick Silva Facebook via AP

    Silva, 22, of Las Vegas, was a security guard at the Route 91 Harvest festival.

    His uncle, Rob Morgan, told The Washington Post that believes Silva was one of the first people killed in the shooting.

    Morgan described Silva as a helpful person who worked 18-hour shifts, bought food for the homeless and held yard sales to pay his mother’s bills.

    Susan Smith

    Image: Susan Smith

    Susan Smith Cornerstone Photography

    Smith, 53, was an elementary school office manager and district fixture in Simi Valley, California — someone who never missed a dance recital and always had a smile on her face.

    “It’s numbing,” a family friend, Suzanne Smith, told NBC Los Angeles. “It doesn’t seem real.”

    Simi Valley School District spokeswoman Jake Finch told The Washington Post that she’d been at the festival with friends when she was killed.

    Brennan Stewart

    Brennan Stewart Facebook via AP

    Stewart, 30, of Las Vegas was an avid country fan who wrote and played country music, his sister-in-law Kelly Stewart told the Las Vegas Review Journal.

    She said Brennan Stewart shielded his girlfriend when the shooting began at the Route 91 Harvest festival.

    “Brennan was the kind of guy who always put others before himself; including up to the moment he lost his life,” his family said in a statement to the Review-Journal.

    Derrick “Bo” Taylor

    Taylor, 56, was a lieutenant at a California correctional facility, the state Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation confirmed.

    Image: Derrick 'Bo' Taylor

    Derrick ‘Bo’ Taylor California Corrections

    Taylor, who was camp commander at the Ventura Conservation Camp, had worked for the department for more than 25 years, the statement added.He lived in Oxnard, California, with his girlfriend, Denise Cohen, who also was killed in the shooting.

    “There are no words to express the feeling of loss and sadness regarding Bo’s passing,” Warden Joel Martinez wrote in a memo to staff. “Bo’s loss will be felt throughout the prison, conservation camps and Department.”

    Neysa Tonks

    Image: Neysa Tonks

    las Vegas shooting victim Neysa Tonks. GoFundMe

    Tonks, 46, worked for a Southern California-based technology company and had three children. Her employer, Technologent, confirmed Monday that she died.

    On a fundraising page, friends recalled her jovial side, posting photos of her wrapped in toilet paper or flashing a goofy grin for the camera.

    “Neysa was always down to be silly,” one friend wrote. “More memories than I can count are of her laughing and she had the BEST laugh!! She will be GREATLY and DEEPLY missed!!!”

    Michelle Vo

    Image: Michelle Vo

    Michelle Vo

    Vo, 32, a former administrative assistant from San Jose, California, was described as “a sweet soul” with a bright smile, according to NBC Bay Area.

    Kurt Von Tillow

    Kurt Von Tillow Courtesy of family

    Von Tillow, 55, was from Cameron Park, California, a small town in the Sierra Foothills outside Sacramento. Von Tillow was shot dead Sunday night; two relatives were wounded but were expected to survive, NBC affiliate KCRA of Sacramento reported.

    Von Tillow was memorialized at a local country club on Monday, and relatives and friends led a procession of golf carts to his home.

    There, a U.S. flag was attached to a fence and bouquets of flowers were strewn across the grass.

    Bill Wolfe Jr.

    Wolfe, 32, was a wrestling coach in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, the police department said in a Facebook post.

    Image: Las Vegas shooting victim Bill Wolfe

    Bill Wolfe, Jr. Courtesy of family

    “It is with the most of broken hearts, the families of Bill Wolfe Jr. and his wife, Robyn, share that Bill has been confirmed to be among the deceased as a result of the mass attack in Las Vegas,” the statement read.

    Wolfe and his wife were celebrating their wedding anniversary, according to PennLive.com, the website of the Patriot-News newspaper of Harrisburg.

    GoFundMe page created by Shippensburg Wrestling had raised more than $8,500 for his family as of Tuesday morning.

    CORRECTION (Oct. 3, 2:15 p.m.): An earlier version of this article misidentified the mother of one of the victims, Rhonda LeRocque. The mother’s name is Priscilla Champagne; she does not share the same name as Rhonda LeRocque.

    CORRECTION (Oct. 6, 12:05 a.m.): An earlier version of this article reported the incorrect age for Brian Fraser. According to the Clark County, Nevada, coroner’s office, he was 39.

    Continue reading  Post ID 90145

  • Getting Wet in the Rain

    Very often, we are tempted to get wet in the rains. But we have to suppress this childish urge to avoid getting sick. We all have targets at work or exams at college to attend to. And getting wet in the rains is a sure shot way to invite a cold infection. The rainy season is a breeding house of infections anyway. So we try to avoid getting sick by not getting wet in rains. Bot no matter how hard you try, the rains do catch you off-guard once in while. There will be day when you forget to get your umbrella and it starts pouring down. So what do you do once you have gotten wet in rain. Do you wait for the inevitable sneezes to start or do something in order to avoid getting sick? Actually, with the right Monsoon health tips, you can prevent falling ill even if you get wet in the rains. What you really need is to act smart and quick after you have got soaked. If you choose to use these Monsoon health tips wisely, you even take the occasional privilege to dance in the rains for fun. Here are some ways to avoid illnesses even after you get wet in the rain.

    Not The First Rains Always try to avoid the first shower of the season when it comes to getting wet. Usually the first showers are light but the wash away all the pollutants in the air. So wait out the first rains to avoid falling ill. Get Rid Of Wet Clothes When you get home soaked, get rid of the wet clothes at once so that the dampness doesn’t seep into your lungs. Discard all clothes including your socks and undergarments. Wash Yo

    ur Feet Rains come with ugly companions like puddles and muddy paths. And feet drags all the germs from these wt places. Soak your feet in hot water and and scrub it with salt to get rid of any infections you are carrying. Hot Shower A hot shower is thebest way to get rid of all the germs and infections that you may have picked up after getting wet in the rain. Use Antiseptic Soaps When you are bathing after getting drenched in the rain, ditch your beauty soaps. Use anti-septic soaps instead to kill any infection in the bud. Use A Blow Dryer If it a wet day, especially after sunset, then don’t leave your hair wet after a shower. Use a blow dryer to dry up quickly so that you don’t catch cold. Use Moisturiser Your skin becomes very dry after getting wet in the rains. So use body oils or moisturisers to prevent dry and itchy skin problems. Have Masala Chai There is nothing like a hot cup of tea after getting wet in the rains. The heat from the tea and the spices used in it help to keep your body warm. Hot Soups If you want something more wholesome, you can also try having piping hot soups after getting drenched in the rain. Basil, Honey and Pepper Have 2 basil leaves with a spoon of honey and 4 peppercorns every morning. This herbal remedy boosts your natural immunity to cold during the Monsoons.

    Read more at: https://www.boldsky.com/health/wellness/2013/get-wet-in-the-rains-without-falling-sick/articlecontent-pf11624-033870.html

  • Revealed: The amount of sex you should be having according to your age group (so how does YOUR love life measure up?)


    • Study conducted by Kinsey Institute for research in Sex, Reproduction & Gender
    • Found that age is a key predictor for regularity of sex
    • People under 30 typically have sex twice a week, and it’s 1.6 times in your 30s
    • Those aged 40 to 50 have sex an average of less than once a week  

    Whether the fire of passion is well and truly burning in your relationship, or you only manage intimacy, you’ve probably found yourself wondering if the regularity of your sex life is ‘normal’.

    Now you can find out, thanks to a study from the Kinsey Institute for research in Sex, Reproduction and Gender which has been recirculated, according to Medical Daily.

    Researchers found that you can tell how your sex life measures up to others, according to your age, which is one of the main predictors for how often you get intimate with your partner.

    It will probably be no surprise that younger people are having the most action with those aged 18 to 29 having sex an average of 112 times a year, or twice weekly. A study conducted by Kinsey Institute for research in Sex, Reproduction and Gender found that age is a key predictor of how often you’re likely to be having sex

    Between the ages of 30 and 39, it drops to 86 times annually or 1.6 times a week.

    And sexual activity tails off even further for 40 to 49-year-olds have half the amount of sex of their 20-something counterparts, making love 69 times a year.

    ‘The basic storyline that has emerged from these studies is that, as we get older, our odds of developing chronic health conditions increases and this, in turn, negatively impacts the frequency and quality of sexual activity,’ Dr. Justin Lehmiller of the Kinsey Institute explained.


    18 – 29 years

    30-39 years

    40-49 years

    Twice a week

    1.6 times a week

    Less than once a week

    Surprisingly, the study did not go beyond those in their 50s and beyond, which appears to back up separate research which found that sexuality among older people is largely ignored.

    Researchers from the University of Manchester analysed written comment from more than a thousand adults aged 50 to 90 to highlighted the obstacles some older couples face in maintaining and fulfilling their sexual lives.

    Many were reporting signs of anxiety as doctors refused to address their drop in sexual desire or physical difficulties, they found.

    Men were discovered to be more likely to discuss the impact of health conditions on their sexual activities.

    Researchers found that, unsurprisingly, 18 to 19-year-olds are most active between the sheets, having sex twice a week on average

    Heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes are all causes of impotence among men.

    But women had a higher chance of discussing health-related sexual difficulties in the context of a relationship.

    Experts recommend practitioners should positively engage with issues of sexual function – regardless of age.

    They believe proactively talking about their issues will help to improve both health and well-being in older patients.




  • Goodbye Jeanette A. Doyon

    Jeanette A. (Major) Doyon, 99, a longtime resident of Worthington Street in the Aldenville section of Chicopee, was Called Safely Home on Wednesday, May 25, 2016. She passed into Eternal Life at Mount Saint Vincent Care Center in Holyoke surrounded by all the memories she loved and cherished. She was born in Dixville, Province of Quebec, Canada on April 23, 1917, a beloved daughter of the late Eugene J. and Leonie M. (Crete) Major. She was a communicant of Sainte Rose de Lima Church in Aldenville. Besides her parents, she was predeceased by her beloved husband, Fernando G. “Pete” Doyon who was Called Home on October 16, 2010; her loving daughter, Karen Marie (Doyon) Regnier who was Called Home on June 7, 2000; and her four loving brothers, Norman E. Major who was Called Home on September 1, 1991, Leo Paul Major who was Called Home on December 4, 1995, Rheal A. Major who was Called Home on April 19, 1999 and Roger E. Major who was Called Home on March 13, 2001. She leaves her son-in-law, Thomas L. Regnier; her two grandchildren, Jesse C. Regnier and Amanda J. Bidwell (David)

    ; and her many cherished nephews and nieces. Her funeral will be held on Wednesday morning, June 1, 2016 beginning at the St. Pierre – Phaneuf Aldenville Chapels, (413-532-9806 ), 13 Dale Street, Chicopee, MA 01020, (funeral home will open at 9 a.m.), followed by a Mass of Christian Burial at 10:30 a.m. in Sainte Rose de Lima Church, 600 Grattan Street, Chicopee, MA 01020. Her burial will follow the Mass at Sainte Rose Cemetery, 49 Olsen Street, Chicopee, MA 01020. Her family will receive friends at the funeral home on Wednesday morning, June 1, 2016 from 9 a.m. to 10 a.m. before the Mass. The parking lot and main entrance are located in the rear of the funeral home at 20 Lafayette Street, Chicopee, MA 01020. For more details, please visit:
    www.stpierrephaneuf.com –


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  • Trends in Premarital Sex in the United States, 1954–2003


    Policy and programmatic efforts promoting sexual abstinence until marriage have increased, but it is unclear whether establishing such behavior as normative is a realistic public health goal. This study examined the proportion of individuals in various cohorts who had had premarital sex (defined as either having had vaginal intercourse before first marrying or ever having had intercourse and never having married) by various ages.


    Data from four cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth, 1982–2002, and event history analysis techniques, including Kaplan-Meier life-table procedures and Cox proportional-hazards regression models, were used to examine the incidence of premarital sex by gender and historical cohort.


    Data from the 2002 survey indicate that by age 20, 77% of respondents had had sex, 75% had had premarital sex, and 12% had married; by age 44, 95% of respondents (94% of women, 96% of men, and 97% of those who had ever had sex) had had premarital sex. Even among those who abstained until at least age 20, 81% had had premarital sex by age 44. Among cohorts of women turning 15 between 1964 and 1993, at least 91% had had premarital sex by age 30. Among those turning 15 between 1954 and 1963, 82% had had premarital sex by age 30, and 88% had done so by age 44.


    Almost all Americans have sex before marrying. These findings argue for education and interventions that provide the skills and information people need to protect themselves from unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases once they become sexually active, regardless of marital status.

    Over the past decade, increasing amounts of advocacy, funding, and programmatic effort have focused on encouraging Americans to abstain from sexual intercourse until they marry. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (i.e., welfare reform) enacted in 1996 contained a provision authorizing $50 million annually in federal funding for abstinence-until-marriage education; programs funded under the act must teach that “abstinence from sexual activity outside marriage [is] the expected standard” of behavior and that “sexual activity outside of the context of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological and physical effects.” State programs funded under this authorization must have as their “exclusive purpose” the promotion of abstinence outside of marriage for people of any age. The current administration recently requested $204 million for fiscal year 2007 to fund abstinence-only education, and now requires such programs to emphasize “that the best life outcomes are more likely obtained if an individual abstains until marriage” and prohibits them from “promoting or encouraging the use of any type of contraceptives outside of marriage.” Due in part to government support, private advocacy efforts to promote abstinence until marriage are also gaining prominence and political clout.

    The primary stated goal of these efforts is to encourage all Americans to abstain from sex until they marry. It follows that such programs consider it an achievable goal to make abstinence until marriage a normative behavior. However, the median age at first marriage increased from 22.1 to 25.8 for women and from 24.4 to 27.4 for men over the past 25 years, and the proportion of the population 18 and older that had never married increased from 16% to 25% between 1970 and 2004,, suggesting that many individuals have a long interval after puberty and before marrying during which they may become sexually active. The median age at menarche is 12.6 and at spermarche is 14.0, so this interval is now typically about 13 years for both men and women. That 70% of adolescent females and 65% of adolescent males have had sex by age 19 and few have married suggests that a large percentage do so before marrying. The first goal of this analysis was to quantify current normative behavior by calculating the proportion of Americans who have had premarital sex.

    In addition, public opinion polls over the last 20 years have consistently shown that about 35% of adults say premarital sex is always or almost always wrong. (Unpublished tabulations of data from the General Social Survey, 1982–2004.) In the same vein, there is a common popular perception that most or all of those who came of age before the “sexual revolution” of the 1960s and 1970s waited until they married to have sex, and that it is necessary to revert to the behaviors of that earlier time in order to eliminate the problems of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. However, research has questioned whether such a chaste period ever existed. The second goal of the analysis was to assess whether the percentage of Americans having premarital sex has changed over time.

    Many or most abstinence-until-marriage programmatic efforts are aimed at teens. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ (DHHS’s) Healthy People 2010 goals include the objective of increasing the proportion of adolescents who abstain from sexual intercourse or use condoms if sexually active, and DHHS’s parenting skills web site states that “abstaining from sex until… a mutually faithful marriage to an uninfected partner is the healthiest choice.” The third goal of this analysis was to assess whether those who abstain from sex at least until the end of their teen years are likely to abstain all the way until marriage.


    The primary data sources for this analysis were the four most recent cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), conducted in 1982, 1988, 1995, and 2002. The NSFG is a nationally representative, in-person survey that collects detailed information on individuals’ sexual, marital, contraceptive, and childbearing behaviors. The 1982, 1988, and 1995 NSFGs all surveyed women aged 15–44; the sample sizes were 7,969 in 1982, 8,450 in 1988, and 10,847 in 1995. The 2002 survey interviewed 7,643 women in this age range, and for the first time a sample of 4,928 men were also surveyed.

    I constructed a measure of premarital sex by combining measures of the age (in years and months) at which the respondent first had vaginal sexual intercourse (if the individual had ever had sex) and the age he or she first married (if the individual had ever married). A previously published cross-sectional analysis indicated that in the 2002 NSFG, 85% of ever-married women had had sex before they married, but this measure fails to take into account women who had never married but had already had sex. A better methodological approach (used in the current study) is event history analysis, which allows one to take into account the experience of people at all ages and of all marital statuses.

    In the current analysis, an event was defined as having sex for the first time before ever having married. Individuals whose month of first sex was earlier than their month of first marriage, or who had had sex but had not married by the time of interview, were considered to have experienced the event. Those who had had sex for the first time in the same month as (or after) their first marriage and those who had neither had sex nor married contributed their months of nonexperience of the event to the analysis and were “censored” at the time of marriage (for those who had married) or at the time of interview (for those who had not married), since they ceased to be at risk of the event at that point. I then calculated the proportion of individuals who had had premarital sex by each age, or event curves, using Kaplan-Meier life-table procedures. For comparison, I also calculated proportions for the occurrence of sex (premarital or otherwise) and marriage.

    Event curves were first calculated for all male and female respondents (together and separately) in the 2002 NSFG. To better examine change over time, I used all four rounds of the NSFG to calculate separate curves for women only by 10-year age cohort, based on the year each person turned 15 and beginning with the 1954–63 cohort. Earlier cohorts have curves that extend to older ages than later cohorts, since only individuals in the earlier cohorts have reached those later ages. Finally, in order to examine the behavior of those who abstained until at least a certain age, I calculated premarital sex proportions for the subsets of men and women in the 2002 NSFG who had not yet had sex by exact ages 15, 18, and 20.


    Figure 1 shows the proportion of individuals in the 2002 survey who had had sex, had premarital sex, and married by each age; the Table contains the proportion who had had premarital sex by specific ages for all respondents and by gender, as well as the median age at first premarital sex for various subgroups. By the exact age of 20 years, 77% of individuals had had sex, and 75% had had sex before marriage; 12% had married. By exact age 44, 99% of Americans had had sex, 95% had had sex before marriage, and 85% had married. At that age, 3.3% had abstained until marriage, and 1.3% had neither married nor had sex. Thus, 97% of those who had ever had sex had done so premaritally at some point. Cox tests of equalityindicated that the likelihood of having sex at all did not differ significantly by gender. However, males were slightly more likely to have had premarital sex at virtually every age; by exact age 44, 96% of males and 94% of females had had premarital sex. Females were more likely to have married by each age, reflecting the fact that women typically marry at a younger age than men. It is important to note that although the overall marriage curve is included for comparison to the sex curves, the percent who had had premarital sex by a certain age cannot be calculated by taking the difference between the sex curve and the marriage curve at that age, because most of those who had both had sex and been married by that age had had sex first.

    Figure 1

    Percent of individuals who had had sex, had premarital sex, and married by specific ages, 2002 National Survey of Family Growth

    Figure 2 and the Table show premarital sex proportions using data from all four surveys (for women only) by 10-year cohort. The figure and table show a trend from the 1950s through the 1990s toward a higher proportion experiencing premarital sex: 48% of the cohort who turned 15 from 1954 to 1963 had done so by exact age 20, while 65% of the 1964–73 cohort, 72% of the 1974–83 cohort, and 76% of the 1984–93 cohort had done so. For the 1994–2003 cohort, 74% had had premarital sex by exact age 20, a figure between that of the 1974–83 and 1984–93 cohorts. The difference between the first cohort and subsequent ones was larger than later differences.

    Figure 2

    Percent of women who had had premarital sex by specific ages, by decade turned 15. 1982, 1988, 1995, and 2002 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth

    Among those born in the 1940s and turning 15 from 1954 to 1963, 82% had had premarital sex by exact age 30, and 88% had done so by exact age 44; for more recent cohorts turning 15 from 1964 to 1993, at least 91% had done so by exact age 30. The youngest cohort had not yet reached age 30 by the time of the most recent survey. A Cox proportional-hazards regression model including cohort as the only predictor indicated that the first four cohorts were significantly different from each other, but that the 1984–93 and the 1994–2003 cohorts were not significantly different (not shown). Figure 2 suggests that the vast majority of those who have premarital sex have done so by age 30.

    Figure 3 and the Table show premarital sex proportions for those individuals (both male and female) in the 2002 NSFG who had not yet had sex by exact ages 15, 18, and 20. Ninety-four percent of those who abstained until at least age 15 and 89% of those who abstained until at least age 18 had had premarital sex by age 44. Even among the 28% of the population who had not had sex by age 20, 81% had had premarital sex by age 44.

    Figure 3

    Among those individuals who abstained until at least a certain age, percent who had had premarital sex by later ages, 2002 National Survey of Family Growth


    The results of the analysis indicate that premarital sex is highly normative behavior. Almost all individuals of both sexes have intercourse before marrying, and the proportion has been roughly similar for the past 40 years. The slight decrease between the 1984–93 and 1994–2003 cohorts was not statistically significant. The increase seen beginning with the 1964–73 cohort may be partly due to increased availability of effective contraception (in particular, the pill), which made it less likely that sex would lead to pregnancy; but even among women who were born in the 1940s, nearly nine in ten had had premarital sex by age 44. Among those who did not have sex at all during their teen years, eight in ten eventually had premarital sex.

    Premarital sex as normative behavior is not surprising in an era when men and women typically marry in their mid-to-late twenties. Indeed, not only is premarital sex nearly universal by age 30, but it is also very common at much younger ages. Evidence from the past 50 years suggests that establishing abstinence until marriage as normative behavior is a challenging policy goal. Instead, these findings argue for education and interventions that provide young people with the skills and information they need to protect themselves from unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases once they become sexually active.

    Table 1

    Percentage of various groups who had had premarital sex by specific ages, and median age at first premarital sex


    I would like to thank Nan Astone for methodological assistance and Cynthia Dailard, Rachel Jones, Laura Lindberg, John Santelli, and Susheela Singh for reviewing drafts of this paper.


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    Articles from Public Health Reports are provided here courtesy of SAGE Publications